Antibiotics and Gut Microbiome Study

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study assessing the impact of probiotic supplementation on antibiotic induced changes in the gut microbiome


• This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial studied the effect of Lab4S probiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota composition following antibiotic therapy.
• Lab4S probiotics minimised the disruption of antibiotics on the gut microbiota by preserving microbial diversity.
• The supplementation with Lab4S probiotic alongside antibiotics significantly reduced the level of antibiotic resistance in the re-growth microbial population.


The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effect of Lab4S probiotics alongside antibiotic therapy on the composition of the gut microbiota and antibiotic resistance.



Bacterial diversity

  • In Group 1, there was a significant decrease in alpha diversity (the number of different bacterial species and the abundance of each species) post antibiotic treatment, that remained consistent until the end of study (*P=0.0320, **P=0.0014).
  • The alpha diversity remained stable in Group 2 throughout the study, suggesting a protective effect.

Bacterial count

  • There was a significant reduction in lactobacilli numbers in Group 1 in response to antibiotic treatment (***P<0.001, *P<0.05). In Group 2, the lactobacilli numbers remained stable.
  • In Group 2, there was a significant reduction of the enterobacteria numbers (opportunistic pathogens, recognised as carriers of antibiotic resistance genes, *P<0.05).
  • A significant increase in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae numbers was observed in Group 1 compared to Group 2 at the end of the study (re-growth bacterial population, (****P<0.0001, *P=0.0084).

Antibiotic resistance

  • Lab4S supplementation (Group 2) significantly reduced the level of antibiotic resistance in the re-growth bacteria (Day 30) of patients taking antibiotics (*P=0.0340).


The combination of Lab4 and Saccharomyces boulardii probiotics alongside antibiotic treatment may help reduce antibiotic-associated disturbances by protecting against loss of microbial diversity and lowering antibiotic resistance in the re-growth microbiota.

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